In 2003, the city of Santa Clarita, California, was paying $28 per ton to put garbage into a landfill. The city then adopted a mandatory diaper-recycling program that cost $1,800 per ton.
Apartment buildings often have dust flumes in which residents can dispose of their waste in stainless steel waste containers. These chutes usually lead to some large receptacle or waste-disposal complex in the basement.
In a 2007 article, Michael Munger, chairman of political science at Duke University, wrote that "if recycling is more expensive than using new materials, it can't possibly be efficient.... There is a simple test for determining whether something is a resource... or just garbage... If someone will pay you for the item, it's a resource.... But if you have to pay someone to take the item away,... then the item is garbage."
The construction industry may recycle concrete and old road surface pavement, selling their waste materials for profit.